Saturday, November 19, 2005

Xerxes I

The basic work is still A.T. Olmstead, History of the Persian Empire (1948, reissued 1985), a complex work, but one that contains the essentials. Charles Hignett, Xerxes' Invasion of Greece (1963), deals only with the relationships between Xerxes and Greece. Peter Green, Xerxes at Salamis (1970), discusses the Greco-Persian wars.

Sunday, October 16, 2005

Wandiwash, Battle Of

Lally, cut off from sea support by the withdrawal of Admiral d'Aché's fleet and hampered by lack of funds and dissensions among his troops, tried

Thursday, July 28, 2005

Biblical Literature, The succession of Solomon to the throne

I Kings (chapters 1 and 2) continues the story of David and the struggle for the succession of his throne. The sides were drawn between Adonijah, David's eldest living son, and Solomon, the son of David and Bathsheba. Supporting Adonijah were the “old guard”—the general Joab and the priest Abiathar—and supporting Solomon were the priest Zadok, the prophet Nathan, and the captain

Tuesday, July 26, 2005


Formerly  Tamatave,   town, eastern Madagascar. The town lies along the Indian Ocean. It was rebuilt after destruction by hurricane in 1927, with the modern sector centring on the tree-lined avenue Poincaré. Toamasina is Madagascar's commercial hub and foremost port, handling much of the island's foreign trade. It exports coffee, vanilla, pepper, cloves, and graphite and imports machinery, textiles,

Saturday, July 23, 2005

Wage And Salary

Income derived from human labour. Technically, all payments for the use of labour, mental or physical, are covered, but in ordinary usage the terms exclude income of the self-employed and are restricted to compensation of employees. Occasionally fringe benefits are included, but generally they are not. The terms are not fully synonymous with labour costs, which may

Friday, July 08, 2005


Town, southern suburb of Paris, in Essonne département, Île-de-France région, northern France. Athis-Mons lies near the confluence of the Orge and Seine rivers and is bisected by the N7 road artery leading to the centre of Paris. It was ancient Attegais, later Athis-sur-Orge, where a treaty of that name was signed in 1305 by the king of France and the count of Flanders. A Romanesque

Wednesday, July 06, 2005

Aesthetic Distance

The frame of reference that an artist creates by the use of technical devices in and around the work of art to differentiate it psychologically from reality. German playwright Bertolt Brecht built his dramatic theory known in English as the alienation effect to accomplish aesthetic distance.